Modafinil is on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list of banned substances and it is classified as a stimulant. Its effect on performance has been researched only little, but based on its effects it is believed to improve endurance and explosiveness. It is known that due to its appetite-suppressing effect modafinil is used in conjunction with bodybuilding to reduce adipose tissue.
Modafinil is also used to improve cognitive performance capacity (i.e. the so-called brain doping). Studies on healthy subjects who do not suffer from sleep deprivation modafinil have found that modafinil has a positive effect, for instance, on attention, learning and memory. Unsurprisingly, students and shift workers have been found to use modafinil and other similar substances. Modafinil as a potential performance capacity enhancer has also been studied by the United States Armed Forces.